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English translation of
Holy Zend Avesta - Vendidad

English translation by James Darmesteter, Dhalla, B. N. Dhabhar,
L. Mills, J. H. Peterson, C. Bartholomae
taken from http://www.avesta.org/avesta.html

Fargard 4 : Contracts and offenses

I.

1
He that does not restore a loan to the man who lent it, steals the thing and robs the man ("He is a thief when he takes a view not to restore; he is a robber when, being asked to restore, he answers, I will not").This he doeth every day, every night, as long as he keep in his house his neighbour's property, as though it were his own.

Ia.

2
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! How many in number are thy contracts, O Ahura Mazda? Ahura Mazda answered:'They are six in number, O holy Zarathushtra. The first is thew ord-contract; the second is the hand-contract; the third is the contract to the amount of a sheep; the fourth is the contract to the amount of an ox; the fifth is the contract to the amount of a man; the sixth is the contract to the amount of a field,a field in good land, a fruitful one, in good bearing.'

3
The word-contract is fulfilled by words of mouth. It is canceled by the hand-contract; he shall give as damages the amount of the hand-contract.

4
The hand-contract is canceled by the sheep-contract; he shallg ive as damages the amount of the sheep-contract. The sheep-contract is canceled by the ox-contract; he shall give as damages the amount of the ox-contract. The ox-contract is canceled by the man-contract;he shall give as damages the amount of the man-contract. The man-contract is canceled by the field-contract; he shall give as damages the amount of the field-contract.

5
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the word-contract, how many are involved in his sin? Ahura Mazda answered: 'His sin makes his Nabanazdishtas answerable for three hundred (years).'

6
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the hand-contract, how many are involved in his sin? Ahura Mazda answered: 'His sin makes his Nabanazdishtas answerable for si xhundred (years).'

7
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the sheep-contract, how many are involved in his sin? Ahura Mazda answered: 'His sin makes his Nabanazdishtas answerable for seven hundred (years).'

8
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the ox-contract, how many are involved in his sin? Ahura Mazda answered: 'His sin makes his Nabanazdishtas answerable for eight hundred (years).'

9
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the man-contract, how many are involved in his sin? Ahura Mazda answered: 'His sin makes his Nabanazdishtas answerable for nine hundred (years).'

10
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the field-contract, how many are involved in his sin? Ahura Mazda answered: 'His sin makes his Nabanazdishtas answerable for a thousand(years).'

11
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the word-contract, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Three hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,three hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

12
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the hand-contract, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Six hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, six hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

13
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the sheep-contract, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Seven hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,seven hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

14
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the ox-contract, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Eight hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,eight hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

15
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the man-contract, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Nine hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,Nine hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

16
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man break the field-contract, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'A thousand stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, a thousand stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

IIa.

17
If a man rise up with a weapon in his hand, it is an Agerepta.If he brandish it, it is an Avaoirishta. If he actually smite a man with malicious aforethought, it is an Aredush. Upon the fifth Aredush he becomes a Peshotanu.

18
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! He that committeth an Agerepta, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered:'Five stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, five stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the second Agerepta, ten stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, ten stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the third, fifteen stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, fifteen stripes with the Sraosho-charana;

19
'On the fourth, thirty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, thirty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the fifth, fifty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, fifty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the sixth, sixty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, sixty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the seventh, ninety stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, ninety stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

20
If a man commit an Agerepta for the eighth time, without having atoned for the preceding, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

21
If a man commit an Agerepta, and refuse to atone for it, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu:two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

22
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man commit an Avaoirishta, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered:'Ten stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, ten stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the second Avaoirishta, fifteen stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,fifteen stripes with the Sraosho-charana;

23
'On the third, thirty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, thirty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the fourth, fifty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, fifty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the fifth, seventy stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, seventy stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the sixth, ninety stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, ninety stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

24
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man commit an Avaoirishta for the seventh time, without having atoned for the preceding, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered:'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

25
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man commit an Avaoirishta, and refuse to atone for it, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

26
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man commit an Aredush, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Fifteen stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, fifteen stripes with the Sraosho-charana;

27
'On the second Aredush, thirty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,thirty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the third, fifty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, fifty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the fourth, seventy stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, seventy stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'On the fifth, ninety stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, ninety stripes with the Sraosho-charana;

Continued...

28
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man commit an Aredush for the sixth time, without having atoned for the preceding,what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu:two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

29
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man commit an Aredush, and refuse to atone for it, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

30
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man smite another and hurt him sorely, what is the penalty that he shall pay?

31
Ahura Mazda answered: 'Thirty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,thirty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'The second time, fifty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, fifty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'The third time, seventy stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, seventy stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'The fourth time, ninety stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, ninety stripes with the Sraosho-charana;

32
If a man commit that deed for the fifth time, without having atoned for the preceding, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazdaanswered: 'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

33
If a man commit that deed and refuse to atone for it, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu:two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

34
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man smite another so that the blood come, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Fifty stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,fifty stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'The second time, seventy stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, seventy stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'The third time, ninety stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, ninety stripes with the Sraosho-charana;

35
If a man commit that deed for the fourth time, without having atoned for the preceding, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

36
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man smite another so that the blood come, and if he refuse to atone forit, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

37
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man smite another so that he break a bone, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Seventy stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,seventy stripes with the Sraosho-charana; 'The second time, ninety stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, ninety stripes with the Sraosho-charana;

38
If he commit that deed for the third time, without having atoned for the preceding, what penalty shall he pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

39
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man smite another so that he break a bone, and if he refuse to atone for it, what is the penalty he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

40
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man smite another so that he give up the ghost, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Ninety stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,seventy stripes with the Sraosho-charana;

41
If he commit that deed again, without having atoned for the preceding, what is the penalty that he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

42
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! If a man smite another so that he give up the ghost, and if he refuse to atone for it, what is the penalty he shall pay? Ahura Mazda answered:'He is a Peshotanu: two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

43
And they shall thenceforth in their doings walk after the way of holiness, after the word of holiness, after the ordinance of holiness.

IIIa.

44
If men of the same faith, either friends or brothers, come to an agreement together, that one may obtain from the other,either goods, or a wife, or knowledge, let him who desires goods have them delivered to him; let him who desires a wife receive and wed her; let him who desires knowledge be taught the holy word,

45
During the first part of the day and the last, during the first part of the night and the last, that his mind may be increased in intelligence and wax strong in holiness. So shall he sit up,in devotion and prayers, that he may be increased in intelligence:he shall rest during the middle part of the day, during the middle part of the night, and thus shall he continue until he can say all the words which former Aethrapaitis have said.

IVa.

46
Before the boiling water publicly prepared (This clause is intended against false oaths taken in the so-called Var-ordeal [see par. 54 n.] It ought to be placed before par. 49 bis, where the penalty for a false oath is given),O Spitama Zarathushtra! let no one make bold to deny having received[from his neighbor] the ox or the garment in his possession.

47
Verily I say it unto thee, O Spitama Zarathushtra! the man who has a wife is far above him who lives in continence; he who keeps a house is far above him who has none; he who has children is far above the childless man; he who has riches is far above him who has none.

48
And of two men, he who fills himself with meat receives in him Vohu Mano much better than he who does not do so; the latter is all but dead; the former is above him by the worth of an Asperena,by the worth of a sheep, by the worth of an ox, by the worth ofa man.

49
This man can strive against the onsets of Asto-vidhotu; he can strive against the well-darted arrow; he can strive against the winter fiend, with thinnest garment on; he can strive against the wicked tyrant and smite him on the head; he can strive against the ungodly fasting Ashemaogha.

IVb.

49 (bis)
On the very first time when that deed has been done, without waiting until it is done again,

50
down there (In hell.) the pain for that deed shall be as hard as any in this world: even as if one should cut off the limbs from his perishable body with knives of brass, or still worse;

51
down there the pain for that deed shall be as hard as any in this world: even as if one should nail (doubtful) his perishable body with nails of brass, or still worse;

52
down there the pain for that deed shall be as hard as any in this world: even as if one should by force throw his perishable body head long down a precipice a hundred times the height of a man, or still worse;

53
down there the pain for that deed shall be as hard as any in this world: even as if one should by force impale (doubtful) his perishable body, or still worse.

54
Down there the pain for that deed shall be as hard as any in this world: to wit, the deed of a man, who knowingly lying,confronts the brimstoned, golden, truth-knowing water with an appeal unto Rashnu and a lie unto Mithra.

55
O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! He who, knowingly lying, confronts the brimstoned, golden, truth-knowing water with an appeal unto Rashnu and a lie unto Mithra, what is the penalty that he shall pay (In this world.)? Ahura Mazda answered: 'Seven hundred stripes with the Aspahe-ashtra,seven hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana.'

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-- Fargard 4 --





 
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