said: O Sanjaya, after my sons and the sons of Pandu assembled in the place
of pilgrimage at Kuruksetra, desiring to fight, what did they do?
O King, after looking over the army arranged in military formation by the
sons of Pandu, King Duryodhana went to his teacher and spoke the following
O my teacher,
behold the great army of the sons of Pandu, so expertly arranged by your
intelligent disciple the son of Drupada.
Here in this
army are many heroic bowmen equal in fighting to Bhima and Arjuna: great
fighters like Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada.
also great, heroic, powerful fighters like Dhrstaketu, Cekitana, Kasiraja,
Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Saibya.
the mighty Yudhamanyu, the very powerful Uttamauja, the son of Subhadra
and the sons of Draupadi. All these warriors are great chariot fighters.
But for your
information, O best of the brahmanas, let me tell you about the captains
who are especially qualified to lead my military force.
personalities like you, Bhisma, Karna, Krpa, Asvatthama, Vikarna and the
son of Somadatta called Bhurisrava, who are always victorious in battle.
many other heroes who are prepared to lay down their lives for my sake.
All of them are well equipped with different kinds of weapons, and all
are experienced in military science.
is immeasurable, and we are perfectly protected by Grandfather Bhisma,
whereas the strength of the Pandavas, carefully protected by Bhima, is
All of you
must now give full support to Grandfather Bhisma, as you stand at your
respective strategic points of entrance into the phalanx of the army.
the great valiant grandsire of the Kuru dynasty, the grandfather of the
fighters, blew his conchshell very loudly, making a sound like the roar
of a lion, giving Duryodhana joy.
the conchshells, drums, bugles, trumpets and horns were all suddenly sounded,
and the combined sound was tumultuous.
On the other
side, both Lord Krishna and Arjuna, stationed on a great chariot drawn
by white horses, sounded their transcendental conchshells.
blew His conchshell, called Pancajanya; Arjuna blew his, the Devadatta;
and Bhima, the voracious eater and performer of herculean tasks, blew his
terrific conchshell, called Paundra.
the son of Kunti, blew his conchshell, the Ananta-vijaya, and Nakula and
Sahadeva blew the Sughosa and Manipuspaka. That great archer the King of
Kasi, the great fighter Sikhandi, Dhrstadyumna, Virata, the unconquerable
Satyaki, Drupada, the sons of Draupadi, and the others, O King, such as
the mighty-armed son of Subhadra, all blew their respective conchshells.
of these different conchshells became uproarious. Vibrating both in the
sky and on the earth, it shattered the hearts of the sons of Dhrtarastra.
At that time
Arjuna, the son of Pandu, seated in the chariot bearing the flag marked
with Hanuman, took up his bow and prepared to shoot his arrows. O King,
after looking at the sons of Dhrtarastra drawn in military array, Arjuna
then spoke to Lord Krishna these words.
O infallible one, please draw my chariot between the two armies so that
I may see those present here, who desire to fight, and with whom I must
contend in this great trial of arms.
Let me see
those who have come here to fight, wishing to please the evil-minded son
O descendant of Bharata, having thus been addressed by Arjuna, Lord Krishna
drew up the fine chariot in the midst of the armies of both parties.
In the presence
of Bhisma, Drona and all the other chieftains of the world, the Lord said,
Just behold, Partha, all the Kurus assembled here.
could see, within the midst of the armies of both parties, his fathers,
grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends,
and also his fathers-in-law and well-wishers.
When the son
of Kunti, Arjuna, saw all these different grades of friends and relatives,
he became overwhelmed with compassion and spoke thus.
My dear Krishna, seeing my friends and relatives present before me in such
a fighting spirit, I feel the limbs of my body quivering and my mouth drying
My whole body
is trembling, my hair is standing on end, my bow Gandiva is slipping from
my hand, and my skin is burning.
I am now unable
to stand here any longer. I am forgetting myself, and my mind is reeling.
I see only causes of misfortune, O Krishna, killer of the Kesi demon.
I do not see
how any good can come from killing my own kinsmen in this battle, nor can
I, my dear Krishna, desire any subsequent victory, kingdom, or happiness.
of what avail to us are a kingdom, happiness or even life itself when all
those for whom we may desire them are now arrayed on this battlefield?
O Madhusudana, when teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles,
fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law and other relatives are ready
to give up their lives and properties and are standing before me, why should
I wish to kill them, even though they might otherwise kill me? O maintainer
of all living entities, I am not prepared to fight with them even in exchange
for the three worlds, let alone this earth. What pleasure will we derive
from killing the sons of Dhrtarastra?
Sin will overcome
us if we slay such aggressors. Therefore it is not proper for us to kill
the sons of Dhrtarastra and our friends. What should we gain, O Krishna,
husband of the goddess of fortune, and how could we be happy by killing
our own kinsmen?
although these men, their hearts overtaken by greed, see no fault in killing
one's family or quarreling with friends, why should we, who can see the
crime in destroying a family, engage in these acts of sin?
With the destruction
of dynasty, the eternal family tradition is vanquished, and thus the rest
of the family becomes involved in irreligion.
is prominent in the family, O Krishna, the women of the family become polluted,
and from the degradation of womanhood, O descendant of Vrsni, comes unwanted
of unwanted population certainly causes hellish life both for the family
and for those who destroy the family tradition. The ancestors of such corrupt
families fall down, because the performances for offering them food and
water are entirely stopped.
By the evil
deeds of those who destroy the family tradition and thus give rise to unwanted
children, all kinds of community projects and family welfare activities
maintainer of the people, I have heard by disciplic succession that those
who destroy family traditions dwell always in hell.
strange it is that we are preparing to commit greatly sinful acts. Driven
by the desire to enjoy royal happiness, we are intent on killing our own
me if the sons of Dhrtarastra, weapons in hand, were to kill me unarmed
and unresisting on the battlefield.
Arjuna, having thus spoken on the battlefield, cast aside his bow and arrows
and sat down on the chariot, his mind overwhelmed with grief.
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